August 3 is Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Niger from France in 1960.
In the 19th century, contact with Europe began with the first European explorers to travel to Niger.
Following the 1885 Berlin conference during which colonial powers outlined the division of Africa into colonial spheres, French military efforts to conquer existing African states were intensified in all French colonies including Niger. By 1922, all resistance to colonial rule was eliminated and Niger became a French colony.
Following the Overseas Reform Act (Loi Cadre) of 23 July 1956 and the establishment of the Fifth French Republic on December 4, 1958, Niger became an autonomous state within the French Community. On July 11, 1960, Niger decided to leave the French Community and acquired full independence on August 3, 1960.
Niger, officially the Republic of Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa, named after the Niger River. Niger is bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria and Benin to the south, Burkina Faso and Mali to the west, and Algeria to the northwest.